Spain obtained what we know today as Equatorial or Spanish Guinea in 1777 through the Treaty of San Ildefonso (1777) and the Treaty of El Pardo (1778) with Portugal. BSpanish Guinea formed part
Manuel P. Villatoro2021-09-19T23:48:51+00:00Morocco’s forgotten affront against Ceuta in the 19th century: the seed of discord Manuel P. Villatoro2021-09-19T23:48:51+00:00
On 10 August 1859, a group of hotheads attacked a small marble tree near the city. The incident was used to start a conflict that, according to experts, united the whole of Spanish society.